Hatha Yoga

Namaste, yogis! Today, we’re going to be talking about my favorite yoga style, Hatha yoga. 

What is Hatha Yoga? 

The word “Hatha” comes from the Sanskrit words “ha” meaning sun and “tha” meaning moon, representing the balance of opposing energies in the body.

Hatha yoga is one of the most popular yoga styles in the world and is a great way to improve your overall health and well-being. Hatha yoga is a form of yoga that incorporates physical postures, known as asanas, breathing exercises, known as pranayama, and meditation techniques. The main purpose of Hatha yoga is to create an absolute balance of the physical body, mind, and energy.

The practice of Hatha yoga is perfect for beginners because it teaches the foundational poses and breathing techniques that are used in most yoga styles. Hatha yoga is also suitable for advanced yogis who want to deepen their practice and focus on the mind-body connection that this style really emphasizes.

Think of each pose as a door to your mind. Hatha yoga emphasizes the connection between breath and movement, which can help to calm the mind and promote mindfulness. By practicing Hatha yoga regularly, you can develop greater self-awareness and cultivate a deeper sense of inner peace and harmony.

History of Hatha Yoga

Let’s explore the history of Hatha yoga and how it has evolved over time.

Origins of Hatha Yoga

The origins of Hatha yoga can be traced back to ancient India, where it was first mentioned in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a text written by Swami Svatmarama in the 15th century. However, the practice of Hatha yoga likely predates this text by several centuries.

The Hatha Yoga Pradipika outlines the principles of Hatha yoga and provides instructions on various asanas, pranayama or breathing exercises, mudras or hand gestures, and bandhas or energy locks. The text emphasizes the importance of a steady and comfortable posture, breath control, and concentration. It has been translated a number of different times and has various interpretations.

Development of Hatha Yoga

Hatha yoga was developed as a way to prepare the body for long periods of meditation. The physical postures and breathing techniques were designed to help practitioners sit for extended periods of time without discomfort.

In the early days of Hatha yoga, the practice was primarily focused on cleansing the body through a process called ‘shatkarma’, or the six yogic purification techniques. These actions included practices such as cleansing the nasal passages and the digestive system to purify the body and prepare it for the practice of yoga.

Over time, Hatha yoga evolved to include a wider range of physical postures, or asanas, as well as breathing techniques, pranayama, and meditation. This shift in focus from purification to physical practice was largely due to the influence of modern yoga pioneers such as T. Krishnamacharya and B.K.S. Iyengar.

Modern-Day Hatha Yoga

Today, Hatha yoga is one of the most popular styles of yoga practiced around the world. It is known for its focus on physical postures and breathing techniques, which can help practitioners build strength, increase flexibility, and reduce stress.

One of the key features of Hatha yoga is its adaptability to different levels of practitioners. It can be practiced by beginners and advanced practitioners alike and can be modified to meet the needs of individuals with different levels of flexibility and strength.

Hatha yoga has also been shown to have numerous health benefits. Studies have found that regular practice can improve cardiovascular health, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve overall physical and mental well-being.

Benefits of Hatha Style Practices

Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced practitioner, Hatha yoga can offer benefits for both your physical and mental health. From increased flexibility and strength to reduced stress and anxiety levels, the benefits of Hatha yoga are numerous and varied. 

Let’s explore the many benefits of Hatha yoga and why it’s a good choice for anyone looking to try out a new form of yoga.

Improves flexibility

One of the most significant benefits of Hatha yoga is its ability to improve flexibility. The physical postures, or asanas, are designed to stretch and lengthen the muscles, making them more supple and limber. This increased flexibility can help reduce the risk of injury and improve your range of motion, making it easier to perform daily activities such as reaching for objects or bending down to tie your shoes.

Builds strength

In addition to improving flexibility, Hatha yoga can also help build strength. The asanas require you to hold various poses for an extended period of time, which can help build muscle and increase endurance. This added strength can improve your overall physical performance and help you feel more confident in your body.

Reduces stress and anxiety

Hatha yoga is known for its ability to reduce stress and anxiety levels. The practice of deep breathing and meditation can help calm the mind and promote a sense of relaxation. By focusing on the present moment and letting go of worries and stresses, you can find a sense of peace and serenity that can carry over into your daily life.

Improves balance and coordination

The asanas in Hatha yoga require a great deal of balance and coordination. By practicing these postures regularly, you can improve your ability to maintain balance and move gracefully. This can be especially beneficial for lifelong health, as it can help prevent falls and improve overall stability.

Increases mindfulness

One of the core principles of Hatha yoga is mindfulness or the practice of being present in the moment. By focusing on the present and letting go of distractions, you can improve your ability to concentrate and be more mindful in your daily life. This increased mindfulness can lead to a greater sense of awareness and a deeper connection to your body and mind.

Promotes relaxation and better sleep

Hatha yoga is also known for its ability to promote relaxation and better sleep. By practicing deep breathing and meditation techniques, you can calm your mind and reduce stress levels, which can help you fall asleep faster and stay asleep longer. This can lead to improved overall health and well-being, as getting enough restful sleep is essential for good physical and mental health.

Boosts immunity

Research has shown that practicing Hatha yoga can boost immunity and improve overall health. Physical postures and breathing techniques can help increase circulation, which can improve the body’s ability to fight off infection and disease. Additionally, the relaxation and stress-reducing benefits of Hatha yoga can also help boost immunity by reducing stress hormones in the body.


All of these benefits can be condensed into one simple term, longevity. Hatha yoga, and yoga in general, gives you tools to help you live longer. I always remind my students that the work they do on the mat can be seen in every part of their lives. For example, yoga makes playing with your kids, or grandkids, easier and allows you to walk up stairs with ease. Practice yoga to enjoy life off the mat even more.

Who should practice Hatha yoga?

No matter the style, yoga is for everybody! You just need to experience and find the style that suits you best. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced yogi, practicing Hatha yoga can help you find balance and harmony in your mind, body, and spirit.

While this style of yoga may work for me and my students, everybody is different. I encourage you to test out different studios and teachers to find a practice that truly resonates with you. 

How to Identify Hatha-Style Classes

​​If you’re new to yoga, all the different styles and class names can be confusing. With all the lingo, how do you know if a class is really Hatha-style?

Modern-day terms you might hear in a Hatha-related yoga class:

These terms can help you identify a Hatha-style class and find a practice that aligns with your goals and needs:

  • “Slow Flow” – a style of Hatha yoga that moves at a slower pace with longer holds, allowing for deeper stretches and a more meditative experience.
  • “Gentle” – a Hatha yoga class that is slower-paced and focuses on ease and relaxation.
  • “Alignment-based” – a Hatha yoga class that emphasizes proper alignment in the postures, which can help prevent injury and promote optimal physical benefits.
  • “Core-focused” – a Hatha yoga class that focuses on strengthening the core muscles through postures and exercises such as plank, boat pose, and twisted chair.
  • “Pranayama” – breathing techniques used in Hatha yoga, such as ujjayi (ocean) breath or alternate nostril breathing.
  • “Surya Namaskar” – a sequence of postures that form a sun salutation, often used as a warm-up in Hatha yoga classes.

Tips for finding a class

  • Look for the class description – most yoga studios will list the style of yoga being taught in the class description. Look for “Hatha” or “Hatha-based” in the class title or description.
  • Check the pace – Hatha yoga classes tend to move at a slower pace than other styles, with longer holds in each posture. If the class description or teacher mentions a slower pace or longer holds, it may be a Hatha-style class.
  • Look for a focus on breathing – In Hatha yoga, breath is one of the most important components of the practice. If the teacher cues specific breathing techniques or emphasizes the importance of breathing throughout the class, it may be Hatha-style.
  • Check the level – Hatha yoga classes are generally suitable for all levels, from beginners to advanced practitioners. If the class description mentions being suitable for all levels or doesn’t specify a level, it may be Hatha-style.

A Guide to Modern Hatha Poses for Beginners

As a yoga teacher, I love to add Hatha poses to my slow-flow classes. Hatha yoga includes a wide range of asanas, that are designed to improve flexibility, strength, and balance in the body. These poses are meant to be practiced in real life and not just theoretically. Here are 15 Hatha yoga poses with cues and benefits to help you get started safely:

Mountain Pose (Tadasana)

The base of your yoga practice. Engages all muscles in your body.

  • Cues: Stand with your feet hip-width apart, arms at your sides, and gaze forward. Lift your toes and spread them wide before placing them back down on the mat. The bottoms of your feet should be pressing into the ground while simultaneously lifting through the spine and head. Engage your legs and core muscles, and lift your chest while relaxing your shoulders.
  • Benefits: Improves posture, strengthens the legs and feet, and helps to build overall body awareness.

Tree Pose (Vrksasana)

  • Cues: Stand with your feet hip-width apart and shift your weight onto one leg. Place the sole of your other foot on the inside of your thigh or calf, avoiding the knee joint. Bring your hands together at your heart center or reach them overhead. Engage your core. Focus your eye gaze.
  • Benefits: Improves balance, strengthens the legs and core muscles, and promotes focus and concentration.

Downward Facing Dog (Adho Mukha Svanasana)

  • Cues: Start on your hands and knees, with your wrists under your shoulders and your knees under your hips. Tuck your toes and lift your hips up and back, straightening your arms and legs. Spread your fingers wide and press your heels towards the mat. Keep your back straight and your chest reaching toward your quads.
  • Benefits: Stretches the hamstrings, calves, and spine, strengthens the upper body and core, and calms the mind.

Child’s Pose (Balasana)

  • Cues: Start on your hands and knees, press your big toes to touch, then lower your hips back towards your heels. Stretch your arms out in front of you and rest your forehead on the mat.
  • Benefits: Relieves stress and tension in the back, neck, and shoulders, and promotes relaxation and calmness.

Warrior I (Virabhadrasana I)

  • Cues: Starting in Mountain Pose, step your left foot back and turn it out to a 45-degree angle. Bend your right knee so that your knee is stacked over your ankle. Reach your arms overhead, engage your core, and gaze forward. Repeat with your other legs on the opposite side.
  • Benefits: Strengthens the legs, hips, and core, stretches the chest and shoulders, and improves balance and focus.

Warrior II (Virabhadrasana II)

  • Cues: Starting in Mountain Pose, step your left foot back and turn it out to a 90-degree angle, or parallel to the back of your mat. Bend your right knee so that your knee is stacked over your ankle. Reach your arms out to the sides, palms face down and fingers press together, and keep your gaze over your front fingertips. Engage your core. Repeat with your other legs on the opposite side.
  • Benefits: Strengthens the legs, hips, and core, stretches the inner thighs, and promotes focus and concentration.

Triangle Pose (Trikonasana)

  • Cues: Starting in Warrior II (right leg forward), straighten your front leg then shorten the space between your legs just a bit. Keep your hips square towards the side of your mat, and reach your left arm forward while lowering your right hand to your shin or the floor. Use your core to keep you up, don’t push into your bottom hand. Keep your gaze towards your lifted hand. Repeat on the other side.
  • Benefits: Stretches the hamstrings, hips, and spine, strengthens the legs and core, and promotes balance and stability.

Standing Forward Fold (Uttanasana)

  • Cues: Stand with your feet hip-width apart and fold forward over your legs, bending your knees as much as your need to keep your chest and belly on your thighs.  Reaching for your ankles or the floor while slowly trying to straighten your legs.
  • Benefits: Stretches the hamstrings, calves, and spine, calms the mind, and promotes relaxation.

Cat-Cow Pose (Marjaryasana-Bitilasana)

  • Cues: Start on your hands and knees, with your wrists under your shoulders and your knees under your hips. Inhale and arch your back, lifting your head, chest, and tailbone towards the ceiling (cow). Exhale and round your spine, tucking your chin towards your chest creating a rounding in your spine (cat).
  • Benefits: Improves spinal flexibility and mobility, massages the internal organs, and helps to relieve tension in the back and neck.

Cobra Pose (Bhujangasana)

  • Cues: Lie on your stomach with your hands pressing into the mat under your shoulders, fingers spread wide and facing forward. Press into your hands and lift your chest and gaze towards the ceiling, keeping your elbows close to your sides. The tops of your feet are together and pressing into the Earth.
  • Benefits: Stretches the chest and shoulders, and strengthens the upper body and back.

Bridge Pose (Setu Bandhasana)

  • Cues: Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet pressing into the floor. Check that your fingertips can touch your heels. Press into your feet and lift your hips towards the ceiling, interlacing your fingers under your back and pressing your arms down to create a deeper back bend.
  • Benefits: Strengthens the legs and core, stretches the chest and shoulders, and promotes relaxation.

Shoulder Stand (Sarvangasana)

  • Cues: Lie on your back and lift your legs towards the ceiling, supporting your lower back with your hands. Bring your legs over your head and lift your hips up towards the ceiling so that your feet, hips, and shoulders are all in one straight line. Support your back with your hands.
  • Benefits: Improves circulation and digestion, strengthens the upper body and core, and promotes relaxation and calmness.

Sitting Half Spinal Twist (Ardha Matsyendrasana)

  • Cues: Sit on the mat with your legs extended in front of you. Bend your right knee and place your right foot outside your left thigh. Twist towards the right, placing your left elbow outside your right knee and bringing your right hand behind you. Repeat on the opposite side.
  • Benefits: Stretches the spine, hips, and shoulders, improves digestion, and promotes relaxation and calmness.

Yogi Squat (Malasana)

  • Cues: Squat down with your feet hip-width apart and your heels on the mat. Keep your back straight by reaching your sacrum to the mat and your head toward the sky. Bring your hands to your heart center or extend your arms forward.
  • Benefits: Opens the hips. Stretches the ankles, calves, knees, groin, and glutes. Strengthens the feet and ankles. Can help to alleviate lower back pain.

Corpse Pose (Savasana)

  • Cues: Lie on your back with your arms at your sides and your legs extended. Allow your feet and hands to fall comfortably. Close your eyes and relax your entire body.
  • Benefits: Promotes relaxation and calmness, reduces stress and anxiety, and allows the body to fully rest and restore.

Hold each pose for as long as you feel comfortable, and always consult with a doctor before beginning a new exercise routine. Also, as you get comfortable with these poses I encourage you to close your eyes for as much as your practice as you can.

Using Props

Every teacher has a different opinion on using props. But, I tend to encourage them in my yoga classes. Props allow you to get into poses safely and maintain proper alignment. This will help you get into your final poses correctly. Remember to always listen to your body and breathe deeply in each pose.


Hatha yoga is great for beginner yogis, experienced yogis, and everyone in between. This style allows you to move slower and focus on proper alignment. It will help you build strength, increase flexibility, reduce stress, and encourage balance in your body and mind.

Looking for even more?

Check out these Hatha yoga resources:

  1. Hatha Yoga Pradipika” – This is a classical text on Hatha yoga written in the 15th century by Yogi Swatmarama. It covers the practices of asana, pranayama, mudra, bandha, and shatkarma. It is considered one of the most authoritative texts on Hatha yoga.
  2. “Light on Yoga” by B.K.S. Iyengar – This book is a classic guide to Hatha yoga postures, with detailed descriptions and photographs of each pose. It also includes information on the philosophy and benefits of yoga.
  3. “The Heart of Yoga” by T.K.V. Desikachar – This book explores the teachings of Hatha yoga and its relationship to the broader system of yoga. It includes detailed instructions on specific practices, including asana, pranayama, and meditation.